Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes an increase in the skin, mucous membranes of the anogenital region, and the epithelium of the upper respiratory tract. Less often damaged internal organs - esophagus, bronchi, rectum, bladder. As a result of the activity of the virus, various forms of neoplasms are formed. Some of them are quite benign in nature, while others pose a risk of malignant tumors. In what cases does papilloma require special attention and removal? The article tells about it.
The path of infection
Infection occurs after contact with a virus carrier as well as a sick person or animal. It should be noted that an infected person may have no clinical manifestations of papillomatosis at all. Sometimes he does not even know about his infection. The virus enters the human body by micro-damage to the skin or mucous membranes. One viral particle is enough for the development of the infectious process. The virus can maintain viability in the environment. Therefore, self-infection is also possible during hygienic procedures and in daily life (shaving, epilation, skin combing, self-injections). The main public places for the transmission of the infection are baths, swimming pools, gyms, etc. Sh. A newborn can become a carrier of human papillomavirus infection through the mother's birth canal.
Types of HPV
Currently, scientists have identified up to 180 types of HPV, including 29 strains considered to be oncogenic. According to their oncogenic potential, they are divided into viruses:
- Low degree of oncoactivity (types 6, 11, 40, 42, 43, 44, 54, 61, 70, 72, 81),
- Average degree of oncoactivity (types 26, 31, 33, 35, 51, 52, 53, 58, 66)
- High degree of oncoactivity (16, 18, 39, 45, 56, 59, 68. 73, 82).
According to the latest data, this or that strain of human papillomavirus can be detected in the blood of about 80% of the world's population. However, this does not mean that all infected people have papillomatosis. What factors cause the development of the disease?
Immunity and Papilloma
Why does the virus disappear from the body of some people, some remain in vain, and some cause papillomas? HPV is an infection that can quite suppress the immune system. In healthy people and carriers of the virus, a strong immune system is observed, which inhibits the multiplication of a foreign agent. The special role of cellular immunity has been proven. It blocks the resistance of the virus to its level (the ability to remain active for long periods beyond the acute phase) and in some cases promotes regression of lesions. Spontaneous regression of papillomatosis occurs within six months. However, the protection of the whole human body is not at such a high level and then the latent HPV infection goes into an open (manifest) form. Papilloma is formed under the influence of such factors as:
- Obscene sex life, frequent change of partners;
- Contact with a partner with a history of genital papillomatosis;
- The presence of sexually transmitted infections;
- Immunodeficiency conditions during vitamin deficiency, atopic dermatitis, pregnancy, AIDS;
- Frequent colds and SARS;
- Hormonal contraception;
- Autoimmune diseases;
- Smoking and alcohol.
Skin that has damage or is prone to inflammation becomes a strong provoking factor, it ceases to have a protective function. Therefore, people with inflammatory skin diseases (acne, rash), eczema, dermatitis, psoriasis are at risk.
Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis is the most common benign tumor of the larynx. Respiratory papilloma occurs in any area - from the nasopharynx to the lung parenchyma. But most often it attacks the laryngeal mucosa. The severity of the disease is determined by the presence of growths in the narrowest area, which contributes to the obstruction of breathing, up to asphyxia. In adults it is considered a mandatory precancerous tumor due to its high degree of malignancy (degeneration into a malignant tumor). The primary symptom of the disease is usually hoarseness, which then develops into hoarseness. The patient can still speak in a whisper. In the first stage, the manifestation of respiratory papillomatosis sometimes occurs by mistake in acute laryngitis. Therefore, it is impossible to prescribe treatment without endoscopic examination. Various physiotherapy procedures around the larynx cause rapid growth of papilloma.
Warts are benign epidermal growths that are mainly found in children and adults. They develop on the face, hands, neck, often causing a lot of emotional problems to their owners. However, more than 70% of these types of papillomas disappear without a trace within 1, 5-2 years. Therefore, doctors resort to their removal only in extreme cases, because with the completion of hormonal changes, it is quite possible for the body to cope independently with HPV infection. Additional risk factors in childhood are frequent stress related to study and passing exams, overwork, lack of sleep, malnutrition, delicate skin in infants, acne in adults.
Whether it is necessary to remove papillomas on the skin
Some neoplasms develop malignantly. This process can not be ignored if a person is attentive to himself. It is necessary to sound the alarm if one of the symptoms is found:
- Papilloma changes in size and configuration (it grows rapidly, the edges are blurred, additional growths and rings appear);
- The color of the neoplasm changes to darkening;
- The inflammatory process joins, the skin peels off, cracks, exudate drips;
- Pain will appear.
All of the above are indications for the removal of formations. It is also worth using a radical method of problem solving if the papilloma is located in areas accessible to daily lesions (neck, groin, waist area, etc. ). Constant grazing and shredding can initiate the oncological process and also facilitate the penetration of pathogenic microorganisms.
Methods of removal of neoplasms
Destructive methods of treating skin formations are divided into:
- Chemical (80-90% trichloroacetic acid and other preparations);
- Physical (plasma coagulation, cryodestruction, laser therapy, electrosurgery).
If removal is expected in adults or pregnant women, then only laser therapy is used. The use of local antiviral and immunomodulatory agents is indicated after destruction.
But the main method of eliminating laryngeal papillomas is endolaryngeal surgery under anesthesia using microinstruments or a surgical laser, after which stable remission is observed in only a third of patients. In practice, a combined approach is used: additional cryodestruction is performed (local form of the disease), local anticancer drugs are prescribed. The most common is inhalation with a special solution.