How to treat human papillomavirus in women

Human papillomavirus in women

Human papillomavirus (HPV) provokes the formation of papillomas, warts, warts and is a contributing factor in the development of cervical and laryngeal cancer. Less often, it can affect the oral mucosa, esophagus, eye conjunctiva. According to the World Health Organization, the incidence of this infection has increased 10 times in the last 10 years. The prevalence of HPV infection in our country, according to studies conducted in the regions, ranges from 29% to 45%. The medical community is particularly cautious because about one-third of isolated virus genotypes provoke the development of oncological pathology.

Classification of the course of papillomavirus infection

Once present in a woman's body, HPV may show different activity depending on the state of the immune system. Depending on how the pathogen behaves, there are several variants of human papillomavirus infection:

  • Hidden flow. The virus remains in the body but does not cause pathological changes in the cells. There are no symptoms - the presence of a microorganism can only be determined using molecular biological research methods.
  • Inflammation associated with HPV usually refers to cervicitis or vulvovaginitis on the background of HPV, which leads the patient to a gynecologist. During the consultation she can find out: How to treat HPV in women. It should be understood that the virus itself does not cause inflammation, but creates the conditions for activating the inflammatory process.
  • Condyloma located in the anogenital region and on the mucous membrane of the genital tract is a form of PVI (papillomavirus infection) current, during which it becomes necessary to use modern surgical techniques to remove the growths. Complex treatment is required after surgical removal, laser destruction, cryodestruction, or radiofrequency coagulation to prevent complications and recurrences.
  • Cervical dysplasia. May be asymptomatic or cause discharge. Severe forms of the disease are precancerous - to prevent this situation, treating HPV in women is more important than ever.

Classification helps the physician choose the most effective treatment tactics. Pathogenic strains are also divided into groups according to their ability to cause oncological diseases: HPV with high, medium and low oncogenic risk. Among the 40 variants of the sexually transmitted virus, 14 are classified as high and moderate oncogenic risk: -16, -18, -31, -33, -35, -39, -45, -51, -52, - 56, - 58, -59, -66 and -68 types.

How is human papillomavirus transmitted?

HPV infection accounts for 70% of the female population. However, the presence of a pathogen in the body does not mean disease. If a person has a healthy immune system, then HPV infection is, in most cases, transient - it goes away on its own within 2 years. If this does not happen, the question of how to treat human papillomavirus in women becomes relevant.

The main way of transmitting the virus is through contact:

  • Sexy;
  • Vertical (from mother to fetus during childbirth);
  • Household (using one towel, shaver, underwear).

Young people aged 13-30 are most susceptible to infection with the virus. The risk of infection during the first sexual contact is about 60%. The virus can also enter the body in the absence of direct sexual intercourse. These are the girls who are most at risk for HPV and then its consequences. This is due to the peculiarities of the structure of their genitals.

Human papillomavirus in women: Causes

HPV infection accounts for 70% of the female population. However, the presence of a pathogen in the body does not mean disease. If a person has a healthy immune system, then HPV infection is, in most cases, transient - it goes away on its own within 2 years. If this does not happen, the question of how to treat human papillomavirus in women becomes relevant.

  • Concomitant pathology of the reproductive system;
  • Endocrine disorders;
  • Immunodeficiencies and beriberi;
  • Common acute infectious diseases - SARS, other viral and bacterial infections;
  • Early sexual intercourse;
  • Abortions;
  • Smoking and drinking alcohol;
  • Chronic psycho-emotional stresses that weaken the immune system;
  • Excessive physical and emotional stress, irregular daily routine;
  • Postpartum period - due to stress and hormonal changes;
  • Prolonged use of immunosuppressive drugs and oral contraceptives.

Frequent change of sexual partners also increases the risk of becoming infected with new strains of the virus as well as activating an existing infection. In the case of impaired immunity, the virus integrates into the cellular genome, leading to a high probability of developing cancer - how to cure HPV in women at this stage of medical science has not yet been discovered. Therefore, it is very important to control the activity of the virus and to properly stimulate the immune defense.

The first signs of HPV in women and additional symptoms

The most obvious sign of the presence of HPV in a woman's body is the appearance of papillomas on the mucous membrane of the genitals and on the skin of the anogenital region. They do not cause pain and usually go unnoticed for a long time. However, the activity of the virus can cause other unpleasant symptoms, which is why a woman should immediately consult a gynecologist:

  • Abnormal discharge from the vagina accompanied by itching and burning;
  • Frequent recurrences of vaginitis, bacterial vaginosis;
  • Unpleasant smelling vaginal discharge.

On examination the doctor sees benign growths on the skin, changes in the cervical epithelium, signs of inflammation. Cancer may appear only in the later stages of chronic papillomavirus infection.

Is there a cure for human papillomavirus?

To understand how HPV is currently treated in women, it is essential to understand what approaches are available to treat human papillomavirus infection. For the time being, HPV therapy therapy is reduced to the following activities:

  • Preventing the progression of HPV infection;
  • Elimination of clinical manifestations;
  • Stimulation of systemic and local antiviral immunity.

There are no drugs that cause the virus to disappear completely from the body. However, research is ongoing in this area - doctors are focusing on the need for combined treatment of different manifestations of HPV. Research in the field of genetic engineering is promising. Scientists are considering the possibility of "copying" the viral code instead of spreading it for self-destruction. Reducing viral copies restores local immunity and eliminates chronic inflammation.

Information for physicians on "How to treat HPV in women" is currently detailed in the current clinical guidelines.

When is it necessary to see a doctor?

Women should undergo a prophylactic examination with a gynecologist at least once a year. Also, a visit to the doctor is necessary if you have any annoying symptoms:

  • Neoplasms in the genital area;
  • Warts on the skin and other areas of the mucous membranes;
  • Pain in the lower abdomen;
  • Unusual discharge or bad odor from the vagina;
  • Itching, swelling, redness of the genitals.

In case of accidental sexual intercourse, a visit to a gynecologist is recommended. Conduct an examination, take a gynecological smear and scraping to detect HPV.

If papillomas have appeared on other parts of the body, it is necessary to consult a dermatovenerologist. When papillomas or warts grow in the anus, a proctologist intervention may be needed. This will help determine treatment tactics and what remedies Papilloma should be prescribed to a patient in a particular case to buy at the pharmacy.

General scheme of therapy

The main weapon in the fight against HPV is stable human immunity. The American Center for Disease Control and Prevention points out that in 90% of cases of contact with the virus, clinical manifestations do not develop due to self-suppression of the virus by natural immunity.

Treatment for HPV infection should be comprehensive and focused on:

  • Therapy of concomitant diseases;
  • Elimination of external manifestations of the disease - medically and, if necessary, surgically;
  • Reduction of viral load;
  • Stimulate the body's own defenses.

Chronic psycho-emotional stress, poor environment and comorbidities reduce a woman's immune system's ability to deal with the virus independently. There are drugs that, with direct antiviral and immunomodulatory effects, help strengthen the body and cause a reduction in viral load. These modern preparations include a spray with activated glycyrrhizinic acid obtained from licorice root. It helps stop the virus from multiplying early and reduces the number of copies of HPV genetic material in the body. The device has a special intravaginal nozzle for the delivery of the drug into the cervix and its uniform distribution on the walls of the vagina. Antiviral and immunomodulatory therapy in the latent course of papillomavirus infection can prevent the onset of unpleasant symptoms and the transition to more aggressive forms of infection. If the virus has caused changes in the genital area and cervical epithelium, the spray helps:

  • Relieve inflammation;
  • Eliminate itching;
  • Restoring the integrity of the mucous membrane;
  • Boost local immunity.

The use of the product is also indicated to remove benign growths caused by HPV, to reduce virus activity and to prevent recurrences during the preparation period. The drug promotes skin regeneration and prevents the attachment of secondary infection.

Removal of papillomas and warts

Benign formations caused by HPV are subject to removal, which can be accomplished by the following methods:

  • Cryodestruction - exposure of a neoplasm to cold;
  • Electrocoagulation - treatment with high frequency current;
  • Laser removal - layer-by-layer exposure to laser radiation before foam appears;
  • Chemical destruction - treatment with special chemical solutions used on warts and destroys them;
  • Surgical removal - given the high risk of recurrence after this type of destruction, it is prescribed selectively - if it is not possible to use other methods.

Among the new developments in the treatment of HPV is the CRISPR / Cas9 system, which almost completely cuts DNA and inserts sections of it, thus inactivating the further spread of the virus.


For primary prophylaxis, the use of barrier contraception (condoms) is recommended, which, while not an absolute protection against HPV, will reduce the level of exposure to the virus. You need to be selective when choosing sexual partners. If accidentally combined, a special spray can be used to protect against HPV, herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus.

To date, HPV vaccination is the most effective. It protects against the most common and malignant types of human papillomavirus. In many countries, HPV vaccination is included in the mandatory immunization schedule. The most effective period of vaccination is in childhood and adolescence. It used to be thought that 20 years after vaccination made no sense. But recent studies have shown that HPV vaccination is appropriate and effective for 45-47 year olds.

If a viral infection has occurred, the secondary prevention task is to maintain the patient's good health, namely the good condition of his immune system. Women should visit a gynecologist regularly for early detection of virus-related diseases.